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Teak (Tectona grandis) is one of the most well known timbers of the world. Its timber qualities include attractiveness in colour and grain, durability, lightness with strength, ease of seasoning without splitting and cracking, ease of working and carving, resistance to termite, fungus, and weathering, etc. The species is native to the Indian-Burmese floristic region and found naturally in India, Myanmar, Thailand and Lao (Kaosa-ard, 1983); it is an old introduction to Indonesia (Kaosa-ard, 1981). Due to its high timber qualities, market demand, ease of domestication and cultivation, teak plantations have been widely established throughout the tropics from the 1850s (FAO, 1956, 1957). Teak has been successfully established as an exotic in many countries, e.g. Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and China in Asia; Ghana, Nigeria, Ivory Coast, Senegal, Togo and Benin in West Africa; Sudan and Tanzania in East Africa; Trinidad, Puerto Rico and Panama in Central America; Brazil and Ecuador in South America (FAO, 1957; Keogh, 1994; Hougs, unpublished data). The global teak plantation area recorded in 1990 was about 1.6 million ha (Hougs, unpublished data) which comprises 75 % of the high grade tropical hardwood plantations (Keogh, 1994). The main objective is to produce high quality timber trees with good growth.
Teak plants prefer a tropical moist weather condition experiences preferably from 20-48° C temperature. Which is why, the central part of India including Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh produces the best quality of Teak, well-known in the market as CT. Nevertheless, comparatively the humid parts of South India and Western Coast including Maharashtra Rajasthan, and Tamil Nadu with relative temperature Max and Min 44-13° C is also ideal for teak plantation.
Even though, teak demands high level of sunlight exposure from 75-100% for better nourishment, this should be noted that seedlings in their growing stage up to 8-10 months should be kept under low sunlight intensity i.e. around 25% .
Ideal site is places with 800-2500 mm rainfall, however also grows plentiful in relatively moist regimes experience 3,500 mm rainfall annually.
Teak plantations have been widely established throughout the tropics to produce high quality timber in trees of good growth and stem form. Many factors affect the success of teak planting programmes including site, seed supply and seed quality, management and other biological factors such as insects. Site is the primary factor influencing plantation growth and development. Growth and yield of plantations grown in different site qualities, within and outside the teak region is illustrated. With correct site selection, growth and yield can be improved more than 100 %. The composition of suitable teak sites is reviewed. Seed supply is a factor limiting planting scale and the quality of the plantation, especially so in countries where teak is an exotic. Seed requirement in various plantation options is tabulated and the effect of seed sources (provenances) and improved seed on growth and quality of plantations is demonstrated. A short term programme for improved seed and clonal stock production is proposed. Silvicultural management of teak plantation practices in weeding, thinning and insect and fire protection for growth and quality improvement is revie